Different Human Gut Microbiome Results in Different Drug Efficacy.

Human gut microbiome is consisted of trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. These microorganisms that live in your intestines play a key role in digesting food you ingest and their number and types within the intestinal tracts are different for everyone. More than 500 new microorganisms are discovered each year. Recently, scientists around the world are beginning to highlight the significance of gut microbiome and its influence in autoimmune and metabolic diseases.

Microbiome interacts with drugs both directly and indirectly. A team of researchers in Princeton University focused on the direct interaction between drug administration and gut microbiome.

They evaluated how microorganisms in human intestinal tracts metabolize various kinds of drugs by developing a quantitative experiment called microbiome-derived metabolism (MDM) screening. MDM-screening assesses the interaction between the administered drugs and microbes from the human gut microbiome.

The team collected and analyzed gut microbial community ex vivo from 21 individuals. Evaluation on how the microbes metabolized 575 FDA-approved drugs uncovered the findings that every individual has his/her unique type, number, and ratio or microorganisms.

Based upon the findings, the team hints that it could be possible to develop and prescribe personalized medicines to treat various diseases in the future. The results of the research could provide a framework for a methodological approach in analyzing drug effects in each person. Similar results were also seen in mouse models.

Research team hopes to highlight the significance of MDM-Screening and its methodology by conducting further extensive experiments with a larger number of microbiomes. Moreover, they hope to gain a deeper understanding of the complex interaction between drugs and human gut microbes.

Resources:
Bahar Javdan, et al. Personalized Mapping of Drug Metabolism by the Human Gut Microbiome. Cell. 2020.

(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32526207/)